A Funny Thing About the Constellation of Virgo

If you look East in the springtime, between sundown and around nine o’clock in the evening, you will see a constellation rising over the horizon. That constellation is Virgo.

As the year progresses, Virgo will be further and further west at sundown, traveling along the ecliptic, as Virgo is one of the 12 Zodiac signs along the path the Sun travels throughout the year.

The Sun passes through the 30 degrees of the ecliptic circle that is attributed to Virgo between August 23 and September 22. This is what what it means for the Sun to be “in Virgo.” This is what is behind people saying that Virgo is their “sun sign.” But this post isn’t about astrology, so that’s enough about that nonsense.

Ancient Facts About Virgo and the Names of Stars of the Constellation Virgo in the Sky

Most of the time, people draw the little lines to make the image easier to see. However, what I have done here is to just trace over the actual locations of the stars, changing the sizes of the stars to correspond to their actual brightness in the sky. With your imagination, you can easily see a woman in a gown rising over the horizon. In her left hand, she holds “Spica,” which is a sheaf of wheat. In her right hand, flung over her shoulder is “Vindemiatrix.” While it is not obvious from the stars themselves, one should know that Virgo is supposed to have wings, as well.

Most people know this constellation as “Virgo,” and yes, it is the constellation Virgo. Ptolemy calls her “Παρθένος” which means “maiden” or “virgin.” And “Virgo” is the Latin translation of this Greek name.

However, we should realize what this means. This means that pointing to the large constellation with Spica, Porrima, Heze, Syrma, Vindemiatrix, Minelauva, Zaniah, Zavijava and Rigl al Awwa and saying “That’s Virgo” is like pointing to someone and saying “That’s the girl.” Which is fine, but it brings up another question. Does the girl have a name?

Well, actually, she does.

Virgo’s Actual Name

The thing to understand about Virgo is that this is a character in mythology. There are several stories about Virgo, and the constellation we see comes mostly from the more recent mythological stories of the Romans. And by “recent” stories, I mean around 2000 years ago, not 4,000 years ago. I wish I could give you info from 4,000 years ago, but I don’t speak Babylonian. I don’t even speak Ancient Greek, either, but we have good translations of those works.

Importantly, the mythology does not ONLY explain who Virgo is in this “picture” in the sky. The mythology explains the reason for certain names of the stars in Virgo, too.

For example, the name “Rigl al Awwa” is the name of the star that means “the barking dog” in Arabic. (Note: the Arabs preserved many of the Greek classics, which were re-discovered by the west in the Middle Ages through the crusades). What does a dog have to do with Virgo? I’m so glad you asked. To answer this question (and many others), I will be relying heavily on “Eratosthenes and Hyginus, Constellation Myths, with Aratus’s Phaenomena: A new translation by Robin Hard, Oxford World’s Classics

Hyginus on Virgo

To explain the names of the stars, we need to go to Gaius Julius Hyginus (64 BC – AD 17) who was appointed by Caesar Augustus to be the director of the Palatine library. Here is what he says about the story of “Virgo.” He starts by describing Bootes (the constellation above Virgo) and connecting the two constellations (Bootes and Virgo) with this story:

Others say that Icarios, after receiving the vine from Dionysos, immediately set to work to load up a cart with wine-skins; because of that, he is also called Bootes (the Ox-driver). Passing through Attica, he introduced wine to the shepherds, and some of them, full of greed and much attracted by this new form of drink, sank to the ground in a stupor, one in one place and one in another. As though half-dead, they threw their limbs around and babbled away in an unseemly fashion, and the other shepherds, thinking that Icarios had administered poison to them to drive their flocks away to his own land, killed him and threw his body into a well, or, according to other accounts, buried him at the foot of a tree. Those who had fallen asleep, however, declared on awakening that they had never enjoyed better rest, and enquired after Icarios, wanting to reward him for his gift; troubled by their conscience, his murderers immediately took flight, and made their way to the island of Ceos. And receiving a friendly welcome there, they decided to make it their home.

But when Erigone, the daughter of Icarios, who had been overcome by longing for her father when she did not see him return, was about to set off in search of him, the dog Icarios, Maira by name, returned to her, howling as if it was lamenting the death of its master. This gave her no small reason to suspect that he had met his death, for the timid girl could only suppose that he had been killed, now that he had been away for so many days and months. The dog for its part grasped her dress with its teeth and led her to his body. At the sight of it, his daughter was filled with despair, and overcome by the thought of her loneliness and destitution, she shed many tears of sorrow and took her own life, hanging herself on the very tree that marked her father’s grave. And the dog appeased the spirit of the dead girl through its own death. According to some accounts, it threw itself into a well called Anigros, with the result that no one has drunk from that well ever since that time, so tradition reports. Taking pity on the three of them for their misfortune, Zeus represented their bodies among the stars, and many have thus identified Icarios as Bootes and Erigone as the Maiden (about whom we will speak later); as for the dog, on account of tis name and form it has come to be called Canicula (the little Dog). Because it rises before the larger Dog, the Greeks call it Procyon (the Foredog). According to other accounts, it was Dionysos who represented them among the stars.

And that is why there is a “barking dog” at the foot of Virgo. The name “Syrma” means “train of a garment” and you can see that the “barking dog” has “grasped her dress with its teeth and led her to his body.” However, there is also another account, which Hyginus also describes:

When Dionysos went to visit human beings to show them the sweet and agreeable nature of his fruits, he enjoyed generous hospitality from Icarios and Erigone. He gave them a skin filled with win as a gift, and told them to spread knowledge of it to all other lands. Icarios loaded up a wagon, and, accompanied by his daughter Erigone and dog Maira, went to see the shepherds of Attica, and showed them what pleasure can be found in wine. After having drunk to excess, the shepherds fell down intoxicated, and thinking that Icarios had given them poison to drink, the clubbed him to death. By howling in front of the corpse of Icarios, the dog Maira showed Erigone where her father was lying unburied. On arriving there, she took her own life by hanging herself on a tree above her father’s body. Angered by what had happened, Dionysos inflicted a corresponding penalty on the daughters of the Athenians. When the Athenians consulted the oracle of Apollo about the matter, they were told that they had failed to pay any heed to the deaths of Icarios and Erigone. On receiving this respone, they inflicted punishment on the shepherds, and founded the festival of swinging in honor of Erigone as a result of that affliction, resolving that, at the grape-harvest, the first fruits should be dedicated to Icarios and Erigone. By the will of the gods, these latter were placed among the stars, Erigone becoming the constellation of the Maiden, whom we call Justice, while Icarios received among the stars the name of Arcturus, and the dog Maira that of Canicula.

Because of the connection with the “wine” harvest, note that the name “Vindemiatrix” is name that suggests it is a “grape harvest.”

But that description actually comes from the description of “Bootes.” When Hyginus moves from describing “Bootes” to explaining Virgo herself, he describes older tales, including that of Hesiod (~700 BC). This is what we read from Hyginus about Hesiod:

According to Hesiod, this is the daughter of Zeus and Themis, but Aratus says that she is thought to be the daughter of Astraios and Eos, and that she lived at the time of the golden age of human beings, and was their ruler. Because she was so conscientious and equitable, she was called Justice, and in those times no one was impelled to make war against foreign nations, and no one sailed the seas, but people were accustomed to spend their lives tending their fields. Those who were born after the death of this generation, however, proved to be less dutiful and more avaricious, and Justice accordingly spent less time among human beings. In the end matters arrived at such a point that the race of bronze was born, and she could then bear it no longer and flew up into the heavens.

But others have said that she is Demeter, and people disagree about her all the more because her head seems so faint. According to some accounts, she is Erigone, daughter of Icarios, whom we have spoken about above, or in other accounts she is a daughter of Apollo and Chrysothemis, who was given the name Marthenos (Maiden) during her childhood, and was placed among the constellations because of her premature death.

Now, this gets interesting. Note that she is the daughter of “Astraios.” However, “Astraios” is just the Greek name for “the father of the stars.” We should also remember that the Constellation in ancient times – before there were any wars – was the “ruler” of mankind.

Remember that. It will be important later.

Aratus on Virgo

But now I’m getting to the weirdest story about Virgo we have. We saw above that we should also note that we also get a mention of “Aratus,” who is an important person writing about the stars. It is Aratus who says Virgo has wings. Paul quotes Aratus in his speech on Mars Hill in Acts 17:

And he made from one man every nation of mankind to live on all the face of the earth, having determined allotted periods and the boundaries of their dwelling place, that they should seek God, and perhaps feel their way toward him and find him. Yet he is actually not far from each one of us, for
“‘In him we live and move and have our being’;
as even some of your own poets have said,
‘For we are indeed his offspring.’ (Acts 17:26-28)

That quote in bold is from Aratus of Soloi (~310 BC – 240 BC). He was a Greek born in Asia Minor (modern day Turkey) who studied under the Stoic philosopher Zeno and served in the Macedonian court. Here’s what Aratus says about “Virgo”:

Below the two feet of the Oxherd you can observe the Maiden, who is holding the gleaming Ear of Corn in her hand. Whether she is the daughter of Astraios [Note: Astraios is the father of all the stars, according to Hesiod’s Theogony.], who is said to have been the ancient father of the stars, or someone else’s child, may she pass peacefully on her way. But there is another tale in circulation among men, that she once lived on earth and approached human beings directly. She did not scorn the company of men and women in days of old, but took her seat among them, immortal that she was; and they called her Justice. [Footnote: “Dike,” righteousness personified, described by Hesiod as a daughter of Zeus and Themis.] She gathered together the elders, in the market-place perhaps, or in some spacious throughfare, and exhorted them most urgently to pass judgements that would serve the good of the people. In those days they were as yet unacquainted with ruinous strife, or malicious discord, or the din of battle, but lived a simple life. The sea and its perils lay far from their thoughts, and ships did not as yet bring in provision from lands far away, but the ox and plough, and Justice herself, the sovereign of all and dispenser of what is right and good, provided in full measure for all their needs. Things continued in that way as long as the earth still nourished the golden race, but with the race of silver she associated but little, and no longer with a willing heart, because she longed for the ways of the people of old. But all the same, even in the time of the silver race, she still remained present. She would descend from the echoing mountains toward nightfall, all on her own, never approaching anyone with gentle words. But rather, when she had filled the broad hills with crowds of people, she would assail them with threats and reproach them for their wickedness, declaring that she would no longer come to meet them even if invited: ‘How inferior are the offspring that your fathers of the golden race have left behind them! And you will bring into the world children who are viler still! And then there will be wars and murderous bloodshed among men, and sorrow will descend on them as a result of their transgressions!’ After speaking these words, she headed for the mountains, leaving the whole crowd still gazing after her. But when these people died in their turn, the race of bronze came into being, men who were even more pernicious than those who had gone before, being the first to forge the pernicious sword to commit murder on the highways, and the first to eat the flesh of the plough-ox; Justice had nothing but contempt for this race of men, and fled up into the heavens and made her home in that place, where she still appears to human beings at night as the Maiden near the far-seen Oxherd.

Okay. Did you catch all that? This constellation is the daughter of “the father of the stars” and she cries out in “the marketplace” and she is the “sovereign and dispenser of what is right and good.” Do you see that she speaks “harsh words”? Do you see the description of these men she loved and those she hated?

Remember all of those details. They will be relevant later. But first, we need to explain how the ancients (to us) thought of ancient times (to them).

Explaining, the Golden, Silver, and Bronze Age of Man

Looking at Aratus, let’s note the funny thing about this story. We get a mention of the “golden age” down to the “race of bronze.” If you think that this means the “bronze age” of 3300 BC – 1200 BC that modern historians have named, you would be wrong. This is the RACE of bronze.

According to the ancients, the “bronze” age occurred right before the Great Deluge of Deucalion. The first race was Golden, the second race was Silver, the third race was vile and “Bronze.” According to Hesiod, in his book Works and Days, which you can read here, this is what he says about the five ages of man:

[106] Or if you will, I will sum you up another tale well and skillfully — and do you lay it up in your heart, — how the gods and mortal men sprang from one source.

[109] First of all the deathless gods who dwell on Olympus made a golden race of mortal men who lived in the time of Cronos when he was reigning in heaven. And they lived like gods without sorrow of heart, remote and free from toil and grief: miserable age rested not on them; but with legs and arms never failing they made merry with feasting beyond the reach of all evils. When they died, it was as though they were overcome with sleep, and they had all good things; for the fruitful earth unforced bare them fruit abundantly and without stint. They dwelt in ease and peace upon their lands with many good things, rich in flocks and loved by the blessed gods.

[121] But after earth had covered this generation — they are called pure spirits dwelling on the earth, and are kindly, delivering from harm, and guardians of mortal men; for they roam everywhere over the earth, clothed in mist and keep watch on judgements and cruel deeds, givers of wealth; for this royal right also they received; — then they who dwell on Olympus made a second generation which was of silver and less noble by far. It was like the golden race neither in body nor in spirit. A child was brought up at his good mother’s side an hundred years, an utter simpleton, playing childishly in his own home. But when they were full grown and were come to the full measure of their prime, they lived only a little time in sorrow because of their foolishness, for they could not keep from sinning and from wronging one another, nor would they serve the immortals, nor sacrifice on the holy altars of the blessed ones as it is right for men to do wherever they dwell. Then Zeus the son of Cronos was angry and put them away, because they would not give honour to the blessed gods who live on Olympus.

[140] But when earth had covered this generation also — they are called blessed spirits of the underworld by men, and, though they are of second order, yet honour attends them also — Zeus the Father made a third generation of mortal men, a brazen race, sprung from ash-trees [meliai]; and it was in no way equal to the silver age, but was terrible and strong. They loved the lamentable works of Ares and deeds of violence; they ate no bread, but were hard of heart like adamant, fearful men. Great was their strength and unconquerable the arms which grew from their shoulders on their strong limbs. Their armour was of bronze, and their houses of bronze, and of bronze were their implements: there was no black iron. These were destroyed by their own hands and passed to the dank house of chill Hades, and left no name: terrible though they were, black Death seized them, and they left the bright light of the sun.

[156] But when earth had covered this generation also, Zeus the son of Cronos made yet another, the fourth, upon the fruitful earth, which was nobler and more righteous, a god-like race of hero-men who are called demi-gods, the race before our own, throughout the boundless earth. Grim war and dread battle destroyed a part of them, some in the land of Cadmus at seven-gated Thebe when they fought for the flocks of Oedipus, and some, when it had brought them in ships over the great sea gulf to Troy for rich-haired Helen’s sake: there death’s end enshrouded a part of them. But to the others father Zeus the son of Cronos gave a living and an abode apart from men, and made them dwell at the ends of earth. And they live untouched by sorrow in the islands of the blessed along the shore of deep swirling Ocean, happy heroes for whom the grain-giving earth bears honey-sweet fruit flourishing thrice a year, far from the deathless gods, and Cronos rules over them; for the father of men and gods released him from his bonds. And these last equally have honour and glory.

[169c] And again far-seeing Zeus made yet another generation, the fifth, of men who are upon the bounteous earth.

[170] Thereafter, would that I were not among the men of the fifth generation, but either had died before or been born afterwards. For now truly is a race of iron, and men never rest from labour and sorrow by day, and from perishing by night; and the gods shall lay sore trouble upon them. But, notwithstanding, even these shall have some good mingled with their evils. And Zeus will destroy this race of mortal men also when they come to have grey hair on the temples at their birth. The father will not agree with his children, nor the children with their father, nor guest with his host, nor comrade with comrade; nor will brother be dear to brother as aforetime. Men will dishonour their parents as they grow quickly old, and will carp at them, chiding them with bitter words, hard-hearted they, not knowing the fear of the gods. They will not repay their aged parents the cost their nurture, for might shall be their right: and one man will sack another’s city. There will be no favour for the man who keeps his oath or for the just or for the good; but rather men will praise the evil-doer and his violent dealing. Strength will be right and reverence will cease to be; and the wicked will hurt the worthy man, speaking false words against him, and will swear an oath upon them. Envy, foul-mouthed, delighting in evil, with scowling face, will go along with wretched men one and all. And then Aidos and Nemesis [shame of wrongdoing and indignation against the wrongdoer], with their sweet forms wrapped in white robes, will go from the wide-pathed earth and forsake mankind to join the company of the deathless gods: and bitter sorrows will be left for mortal men, and there will be no help against evil.

In other words, WE are in the Fifth Generation of man. The race of “Iron,” which unlike Gold, Silver, and Bronze, is quick to corrode and disintegrate. This is repeated by Ovid, who says that the Bronze race existed right before the flood of Deucalion:

Third came the people of the bronze age, with fiercer natures, readier to indulge in savage warfare, but not yet vicious. The harsh iron age was last. Immediately every kind of wickedness erupted into this age of baser natures: truth, shame and honour vanished; in their place were fraud, deceit, and trickery, violence and pernicious desires. They set sails to the wind, though as yet the seamen had poor knowledge of their use, and the ships’ keels that once were trees standing amongst high mountains, now leaped through uncharted waves. The land that was once common to all, as the light of the sun is, and the air, was marked out, to its furthest boundaries, by wary surveyors. Not only did they demand the crops and the food the rich soil owed them, but they entered the bowels of the earth, and excavating brought up the wealth it had concealed in Stygian shade, wealth that incites men to crime. And now harmful iron appeared, and gold more harmful than iron.   War came, whose struggles employ both, waving clashing arms with bloodstained hands. They lived on plunder: friend was not safe with friend, relative with relative, kindness was rare between brothers. Husbands longed for the death of their wives, wives for the death of their husbands. Murderous stepmothers mixed deadly aconite, and sons inquired into their father’s years before their time. Piety was dead, and virgin Astraea, last of all the immortals to depart, herself abandoned the blood-drenched earth.

And if you’re wondering what the flood of Deucalion is, it was a worldwide flood that killed all human beings except Deucalion and his wife Pyrrha who escaped because they were warned by the gods and instructed on how to flee. Sound familiar? Yeah. It’s Noah.

Also, the “virgin Astrea” IS VIRGO. Remember how Aratus said that she was the “daughter of Astraios”? Ovid picks up on this and just names her “Astrea.”

So in addition to “Erigone” and “Justice” or “Dike,” we also have “Astrea.” These are the names of Virgo. However, I think

The Strange Correlation Between Greek and Roman “Myths” and the Bible

Before we move on, let’s notice some strange facts in these “Greek Myths.” This is what they say in these passages. In the old times:

  1. A man was not an adult until he was around 100.
  2. Men did not eat animals until the race of bronze
  3. The race of bronze was the first to make weapons
  4. War came not only between nations but in the home, as well.

Are you seeing this important stuff about the race of Bronze? Did you see that no one had yet forged “the pernicious sword to commit murder on the highways” before that time? Did you notice that “that time” was BEFORE THE FLOOD? Well, look what we read in Genesis about THAT SAME TIME:

Cain knew his wife, and she conceived and bore Enoch. When he built a city, he called the name of the city after the name of his son, Enoch. To Enoch was born Irad, and Irad fathered Mehujael, and Mehujael fathered Methushael, and Methushael fathered Lamech. And Lamech took two wives. The name of the one was Adah, and the name of the other Zillah. Adah bore Jabal; he was the father of those who dwell in tents and have livestock. His brother’s name was Jubal; he was the father of all those who play the lyre and pipe. Zillah also bore Tubal-cain; he was the forger of all instruments of bronze and iron. The sister of Tubal-cain was Naamah.

Lamech said to his wives:
“Adah and Zillah, hear my voice;
    you wives of Lamech, listen to what I say:
I have killed a man for wounding me,
    a young man for striking me.
If Cain’s revenge is sevenfold,
    then Lamech’s is seventy-sevenfold.”
(Genesis 4:17-24)

And look what was see immediately after that:

When Adam had lived 130 years, he fathered a son in his own likeness, after his image, and named him Seth. The days of Adam after he fathered Seth were 800 years; and he had other sons and daughters. Thus all the days that Adam lived were 930 years, and he died. When Seth had lived 105 years, he fathered Enosh. Seth lived after he fathered Enosh 807 years and had other sons and daughters. Thus all the days of Seth were 912 years, and he died. (Genesis 5:1-4)

Isn’t that funny? We have a passages that mentions:

  1. A man having his third child at the “young” age of 130. After him, came another son, who had his FIRST CHILD at the age of 105.
  2. Humans in the Bible did not eat animals until after the flood, and the first person to herd animals (presumably for food) happened immediately before the flood.
  3. Tubal Cain was the first person to make cutting instruments of BRONZE and iron.
  4. Strife came to the home by taking two wives and a husband threatening his wives with what will happen if they cross him.

Are you getting this? Are you noticing the thing about Genesis, and Ovid and Hesiod about early human history?

Yes, that’s right. These two passages are talking about EXACTLY THE SAME HISTORY. No, the Bible did not “copy” ancient Greek writings, as the Bible’s copies came WAY before the Greeks put them down (Moses wrote between 1446 BC and 1400 BC, while the oldest copies we have of Greek myths come from around 700 BC, which is around the time of Isaiah).

Here’s how ancient “Greek Myths” match up to actual biblical history:

  1. Golden Age – these are the generations of Adam and Eve and Cain and Abel
  2. Silver Age – these are the generations starting with Seth
  3. Bronze Age – this is the generation starting with Lamech and his wives, at the time of Noah
  4. The Age of Heroes – this is the time when Noah and his descendants continue to live A REALLY LONG TIME, even though the ordinary age of mankind does not extend past 120 years.
  5. The Iron Race – This is from the Trojan war to today.

And the thing to realize is that the ancient Greeks did not call their stories “Myths.” Instead, they just called them “stories” or “fables,” which basically means “things we have heard from a long time ago.”

The Bible’s Name for the Constellation Virgo

Oh, but things get weirder. The fact of the matter is, the Bible does not actually connect anyone to the constellation Virgo. But if you look at the ancient DESCRIPTIONS of Virgo (which we did above), you see something EXTREMELY WEIRD. There IS a character in the Bible who matches up to Virgo.

Look what else we read from Solomon, who lived between ~990BC – 931 BC. Here’s what he says in the eighth chapter of Proverbs:

Does not wisdom call?
    Does not understanding raise her voice?
On the heights beside the way,
    at the crossroads she takes her stand;
beside the gates in front of the town,
    at the entrance of the portals she cries aloud:
“To you, O men, I call,
    and my cry is to the children of man.
O simple ones, learn prudence;
    O fools, learn sense.
Hear, for I will speak noble things,
    and from my lips will come what is right,
for my mouth will utter truth;
    wickedness is an abomination to my lips.
All the words of my mouth are righteous;
    there is nothing twisted or crooked in them.
They are all straight to him who understands,
    and right to those who find knowledge.
Take my instruction instead of silver,
    and knowledge rather than choice gold,
for wisdom is better than jewels,
    and all that you may desire cannot compare with her.
“I, wisdom, dwell with prudence,
    and I find knowledge and discretion.
The fear of the Lord is hatred of evil.
Pride and arrogance and the way of evil
    and perverted speech I hate.
I have counsel and sound wisdom;
    I have insight; I have strength.
By me kings reign,
    and rulers decree what is just;
by me princes rule,
    and nobles, all who govern justly.
I love those who love me,
    and those who seek me diligently find me.
Riches and honor are with me,
    enduring wealth and righteousness.
My fruit is better than gold, even fine gold,
    and my yield than choice silver.
I walk in the way of righteousness,
    in the paths of justice,
granting an inheritance to those who love me,
    and filling their treasuries.

“The Lord possessed [Footnote: or “fathered” Septuagint: “created”] me at the beginning of his work,
    the first of his acts of old.
Ages ago I was set up,
    at the first, before the beginning of the earth.
When there were no depths I was brought forth,
    when there were no springs abounding with water.
Before the mountains had been shaped,
    before the hills, I was brought forth,
before he had made the earth with its fields,
    or the first of the dust of the world.
When he established the heavens, I was there;
    when he drew a circle on the face of the deep,
when he made firm the skies above,
    when he established the fountains of the deep,
when he assigned to the sea its limit,
    so that the waters might not transgress his command,
when he marked out the foundations of the earth,
    then I was beside him, like a master workman,
and I was daily his delight,
    rejoicing before him always,
rejoicing in his inhabited world
    and delighting in the children of man.
“And now, O sons, listen to me:
    blessed are those who keep my ways.
Hear instruction and be wise,
    and do not neglect it.
Blessed is the one who listens to me,
    watching daily at my gates,
    waiting beside my doors.
For whoever finds me finds life
    and obtains favor from the Lord,
but he who fails to find me injures himself;
    all who hate me love death.”
(Proverbs 8:1-36)

This is a creation account linked to “Lady Wisdom.”


Virgo is called “Justice” and she was a daughter of the father of the stars. Lady Wisdom is called “Wisdom” and she was created by God himself, who is also the Father of the stars.

Showing Exactly How Weird Things Are With Virgo and the Bible

Let’s go through this in detail. Look back up at the fourth verse in Proverbs 8, above. This is what that verse says in English:

To you, O men [Hebrew: “men”], I call,
    and my cry is to the children of man [Hebrew: “Adam”].

But the first time it uses the word “men,” that’s the general Hebrew word (אִישׁ) which is “ish.” This word means “man.” If you want it to be plural, you can just write (אַנְשֵׁ֤י) and make it “men.” But that’s not what the second word in that verse says. Instead, the Hebrew word is (אָדָם) which is “Adam.” In other words, Lady Wisdom is literally speaking to “the children of Adam,” which is the same thing as “men.” She then says this:

rejoicing in his inhabited world
    and delighting in the children of man [Hebrew: “Adam”]
“And now, O sons, listen to me:
    blessed are those who keep my ways.

In other words, this perfectly matches what Aratus says about Virgo:

She did not scorn the company of men and women in days of old, but took her seat among them, immortal that she was;

In fact, look at Lady Wisdom’s instruction to the sons of Adam, and compare that with what Aratus says about Astreia:

“And now, O sons, listen to me:
    blessed are those who keep my ways.
Hear instruction and be wise,
    and do not neglect it.
Blessed is the one who listens to me,
    watching daily at my gates,
    waiting beside my doors.

For whoever finds me finds life
    and obtains favor from the Lord,
but he who fails to find me injures himself;
    all who hate me love death.”

In other words, this is exactly what Aratus said the daughter of the “father of the stars” was warning humanity about before the flood:

She would descend from the echoing mountains toward nightfall, all on her own, never approaching anyone with gentle words. But rather, when she had filled the broad hills with crowds of people, she would assail them with threats and reproach them for their wickedness, declaring that she would no longer come to meet them even if invited: ‘How inferior are the offspring that your fathers of the golden race have left behind them! And you will bring into the world children who are viler still! And then there will be wars and murderous bloodshed among men, and sorrow will descend on them as a result of their transgressions!’

She sounds more harsh in the Aratus version, but the message is the same. She asks for justice, and warns that trouble will come if they do not change. And just as Aratus says that she hated the race of Bronze, Ovid says that right before the flood, “virgin Astraea, last of all the immortals to depart” was still calling out, and then she left.

Also, remember how Hyginus claimed that the constellation of Virgo was the “ruler” of the ancient people of old? Well look at what Lady Wisdom says:

By me kings reign,
    and rulers decree what is just;
by me princes rule,
    and nobles, all who govern justly.

Interesting….. isn’t it? But let’s also remember that Aratus says that Virgo represents someone who was “immortal,” right? Well, look at what the Bible says:

The Lord possessed [Footnote: or “fathered” Septuagint: “created”] me at the beginning of his work,
    the first of his acts of old.
Ages ago I was set up,
    at the first, before the beginning of the earth.

That sounds pretty immortal to me, right?

So this leads to an obvious conclusion, which is that Solomon is just copying the works of others and putting it into the Bible. The Bible is just a bunch of GREEK MYTHS, right?

But there’s a problem with this conclusion about the Bible just being a copy of the “Greek Myths.” The problem is that Solomon lived between 990 BC and 931 BC. Hesiod wrote in 700 BC. Aratus wrote in the 200s BC. Hyginus wrote around 1 AD. Solomon comes LONG BEFORE any of those Greeks ever put pen to paper.

In fact, Solomon writes long before the “Greeks” even became the civilization of what we would call “Greece.” In other words, Solomon is writing between 200 years and 1000 years BEFORE Hesiod, Hyginus, Aratus, and everybody else.


Yep. Solomon wasn’t copying anyone we know about. If anything, everyone we know about was copying Solomon.

The Weird Part for Christians

Now, that’s all nice and good for you astrology people. The idea that a “goddess” was walking around the earth is strange, but something that we can work with. Myths are “myths” right? That’s a word for a story that’s not true, obviously.

But for Christians, this gets difficult, because we have a description about a woman who seems to be very well described. We can take her as a “personified” version of “Wisdom,” but why do OTHER CULTURES also describe her in the same terms? That doesn’t make much sense.

We Christians need to either find a way for this to fit with scripture, or utterly reject it. And when we read a story about some “goddess” coming down to earth and then ascending into heaven before the Flood of Noah, there is a very clear verse that works against this. That comes from the mouth of Jesus in the gospel of John:

No one has ascended into heaven except he who descended from heaven, the Son of Man. (John 3:13)

HA! So that’s that! This story about Astreia CAN’T be true, because Jesus says so! But wait a minute… No one has ascended? Like, literally no one? What about Enoch? (Genesis 5:21-24) What about Elijah? (2 Kings 2:11) What about Paul? (2 Corinthians 12:2) What about John? (Revelation 4:1-3)

How can Jesus say that NO ONE has ascended into heaven except for himself? The answer comes with the Greek word ἀναβέβηκεν for “has gone up.” The word is perfect tense, with the indicative mood, and active voice. That means Jesus refers to a COMPLETE ACTION, that is ACTUALLY TRUE, and which is done ACTIVELY by someone or something. In other words, no one IS ABLE TO ASCEND, unless someone in heaven HELPS them ascend. That makes sense, and that solves that point.

As such, it seems that we still have a verse that says that a female “goddess” or “angel” or whatever we want to call her cannot go up into the heavens. That’s what John 3:13 says, right? “No one has ascended into heaven except HE who descended from heaven.”

He didn’t say SHE, did he? I mean…. didn’t he?

Well, here’s the craziest part. In the Greek, that word “he” doesn’t exist. Instead, this is what it says:

καὶ οὐδεὶς ἀναβέβηκεν εἰς τὸν οὐρανὸν εἰ μὴ ὁ ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ καταβάς ὁ Υἱὸς τοῦ ἀνθρώπου

[And] [no one] [has gone up] [into] [the] [heaven] [if] [not] [the] [out of] [the] [heaven] [having come down] [the] [son] [of] [man].

Here’s the REALLY CRAZY PART for Christians like me when it comes to “Virgo.” Jesus isn’t saying that HE is the only person who CAN ascend to heaven, and the reason he is not saying that is because he does not use the word “HE.” Instead, the point Jesus is making is that the only way you can go up into the heaven is if you first come down from the heaven, which is what angels do all the time…

….and just as Virgo supposedly did, too. Remember that small detail about Virgo having wings?

And THAT is the weird thing I noticed about Virgo.

One Comment Add yours

  1. Chase says:

    that was a refreshing read to say the least, thank you for sharing Love

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